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The independent state of Papua New Guinea is located on the eastern half of the island of New Guinea, with Indonesia comprising the western half of the island. The British took responsibility for Papua New Guinea in 1885 but transferred administration to Australia in 1902. Independence was granted in 1975. In 1990, the island of Bougainville revolted, leading to a nine-year conflict and the loss of 20,000 lives. Bordering on the South Pacific Ocean and the Coral Sea, Papua New Guinea has a 5,152-mile (8,295-kilometer) coastline. The climate is tropical with only slight seasonal variation. The staggered monsoon season lasts much of the year, occurring from December to March in the northwest and from May to October in the southeast. The terrain is generally mountainous ...

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