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Paleoclimatology involves the reconstruction of past climates prior to the instrumental period. Paleoclimatology focuses on: (1) describing past climates, (2) understanding the natural and anthropogenic processes responsible for these patterns, and (3) using this knowledge of past climates and climate dynamics to identify and understand potential responses to climatic forcing. Detailed views of the modern climate can be obtained using available instrumental records and documentary or historical sources of information, but their short temporal resolution and/or sparse spatial coverage limits their ability to capture the variability that is inherent in the climate system. Paleoclimatology, therefore, extends instrumental and historical records further back in time, enabling the capture of a greater range of variability. This enhances not only our understanding of climate variability in terms of ...

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