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Orientalism refers in general to the interest by Western Europeans and Americans in Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies, cultures, art, and architecture, which reached a peak in the 18th and 19th centuries but has long been a facet of European culture. The term also refers to a pejorative, romantic, and colonial habit of thinking, embodied in such academic study and ongoing into the present, which holds that the East is in some way essentially different from the West. This latter meaning of the term is rooted in Edward Said's book of the same name, Orientalism, published in 1978.

During the period of the Crusades, many designs and ideas from the Near East, as Turkey and the Holy Land were then known, were taken to Western ...

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