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Marine Pollution

Marine pollution is caused by the introduction (whether directly or indirectly) of substances or energy into the marine environment, which cause harm to living marine resources. Sources of marine pollution include: (1) direct discharge of effluents and solid wastes into the seas and oceans; (2) land runoff into the coastal zone, mainly from rivers; and (3) atmospheric fallout of pollutants transferred by the air mass onto the sea's surface. Research has shown that two-thirds of the total input of contaminants into the marine environment is from landbased and atmospheric sources, constituting 44 percent and 33 percent, respectively.

Ecological impacts of marine pollution include disturbances in the function of water biotic communities and habitats and changes to hydrology and geomorphologic systems. Impacts can manifest as changes in ...

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