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Karst topography results from the dissolution of subsurface carbonate rock (calcite and dolomite) through the percolation of slightly acidic moisture in the form of carbonic acid, which is formed from rainwater picking up carbon dioxide in both the atmosphere and the soil. Once within the carbonate rock layers, the acidic liquid begins to dissolve the rock, leading to landscapes with numerous cave features. A common outcome is also the development of sinkholes, where the dissolved subsurface rock layer can no longer support soil and rock above it and collapses. Karst landscapes can develop from fluvial formations (surface water) and underground drainage. The term Karst is rooted in the German place name, Kras, designating a region in Slovenia extending into Italy, where the first research on ...

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