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The generic capacities and attributes that are universal, elemental, and unique to the human species constitute human nature. From a biological perspective, humans share commonalities with vertebrates, mammals, and primates, but these are not unique to humans. On the other hand, there is a combination of biological attributes that distinguishes the human species as Homo sapiens like habitual erect posture and bipedal gait, the fully opposable thumb allowing precision grip, brain size and structure, and the anatomy of the vocal apparatus.

What makes humans different, as well as the difference this makes, are the two pivotal questions in exploring human nature. A secondary set of questions includes the relative weight and the character of the relationship between these dualistic components that are variously implicated in conceptions ...

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