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Academics and researchers find that gender, in relation to the environment, yields certain consistencies across cultures. For example, men and women participating in the Chipko movement found that their encounter with their environment was determined by their gender. While Chipko movement members all opposed forest commons's transfer to commercial cultivation, Vandana Shiva noted that women and men had different ideas about the forest's future development. Women wanted to maintain the trees they used for fuel wood and fodder; men wanted to plant commercial trees such as eucalyptus. In other words, women were interested in sustainability; men, in access to markets.

International nongovernmental organizations such as the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) collect data on women's and men's differential access to natural resources. The current UNDP Human ...

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