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Analytical chemistry is the branch of chemistry that uses specialized techniques to identify and understand the structure and function of chemical substances. These techniques include crystallography, spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and chromatography. Analysis depends on sound laboratory practices and the application of the scientific method for obtaining data from repeated, robustly designed experiments and then using statistical methods to determine probability to the distributions of results. Various competencies are required, therefore, and the cost of not only training suitable personnel but providing appropriate premises and equipment can be high. The practitioners of forensics, for example, have made great strides in identifying such issues as causes and times of death, evidence of poisoning, and locating microscopic scraps of evidence to tie to perpetrators. However, these activities are both ...

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