• Entry
  • Reader's guide
  • Entries A-Z
  • Subject index

“COMPLEXITY” IS A multifaceted term. Scientists, managers, and the public may mean quite different things by the term, since they each have distinct personal experiences that influence ideas and processes. Complexity science and related theories derive from natural science disciplines such as physics and chemistry. There is a widely recognized fact that the practice of managing human-environment interactions is complex. Complexity science and theories have become increasingly influential in environmental management in the last decade or so, following in the footsteps of broader systems and ecosystem concepts that became influential in the 1960s and 1970s.

The earlier incorporation of systems and ecosystem approaches into environmental planning and management brought home the connected and hierarchical nature of human–environment systems: connections between ecosystems, economies and societies, and between ...

    • Loading...
    locked icon

    Sign in to access this content

    Get a 30 day FREE TRIAL

    • Watch videos from a variety of sources bringing classroom topics to life
    • Read modern, diverse business cases
    • Explore hundreds of books and reference titles