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The notion of uncertainty is used to characterize how well future events or scientific truths can be predicted or known. It is used in both social and natural science disciplines from mathematics to philosophy to risk assessment and public policy. If probability is a measure of likelihood, then uncertainty is a measure of how well the probability is known. Uncertainty can be classified into known and unknown probabilities. Events with known probabilities are referred to as events with statistical uncertainties. Events with unknown probabilities are often called events with true uncertainty.

In chemistry and quantum physics, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is used to characterize the wave/particle duality of electrons. It postulates that the position and momentum of a particle cannot be simultaneously predicted. This has nothing ...

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