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Efficient, convenient, and affordable transportation systems are viewed as an essential component for social and economic development. The United Nations (UN) has called for concerted action on transport issues in its 1992 Agenda 21 Program and the 2002 Johannesburg Plan of Implementation. However, because transport is a major source of atmospheric emissions, it must be carefully designed and managed so as to be sustainable—environmentally, socially, and economically—in the long term. Transport involves the movement of people and goods, and falls into three sectors: Air, sea, and land.

Air Transport

Air transport has only existed for approximately 100 years; however, the consistent growth of this sector has raised concerns about its environmental impacts. Airplanes release pollutants associated with the combustion of fossil fuels, such as carbon dioxide, carbon ...

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