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Toxaphene is a now-banned insecticide that was previously used extensively across the United States to control insect pests in cotton-growing areas in particular. It is generally encountered as a gas or as a waxy, yellowish solid with an aroma of turpentine. Toxaphene is made up of some 670 separate chemical substances and has an average chemical structure of C10H10Cl8 (it is also known as chlorinated camphene and other names). Although effective in its role as an insecticide, it has also been found to have serious negative impacts on human health including damage to the kidney, lungs, and nervous system; severe exposure to the substance might lead to death. The substance is persistent in the environment and not susceptible to biodegrading. Consequently, although it has been ...

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