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Thunderstorms are dramatic weather phenomena that may deliver much-needed rain or cooling relief from oppressive heat and humidity, but they are also the makers of dangerous, violent winds, flash floods, damaging hail, and deadly airto-ground lightning. Hundreds of people are killed every year by thunderstorm winds, floods, and lightning. Thunderstorms also destroy property, crops, and significant numbers of livestock every year.

Thunderstorms are formed by rising air that is warm and moist. The warm air currents become strong updrafts that can reach 7–11 miles high. Some storms have updrafts so powerful that the warm moist air reaches the troposphere where the updraft circulation produces hail. The hail may be the size of a marble, an orange, or even a grapefruit. These hail storms may kill people ...

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