SYMBIOSIS REFERS TO an arrangement between two species that live together very closely and may have co-evolved. The living arrangement may be beneficial, neutral, or harmful to either or both of the creatures. Those involved are called symbionts and their relationship may be one of mutualism, parasitism, or commensalism. Mutualism represents positive benefits for all creatures concerned, commensalism represents benefits for one partner, and parasitism leads to benefits for one partner at the expense of the other. Examples include the birds that pick food from the teeth of crocodiles, or ticks from buffaloes, receiving protection from the larger animals for their efforts. Other examples include the many bacteria that find homes inside human beings and other creatures. Evidence suggests that the eukaryotic cells that make ...

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