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Statistics and Sampling

The word statistics is derived from the Latin term statisticum collegium, meaning “council of state,” and the Italian word statista, meaning “statesman” or “politician.” In 1749, Gottfried Achenwall introduced Statistik for the analysis of data to be used by government and administration, signifying the “science of state” (then called “political arithmetic” in English). It acquired the meaning of the collection and classification of data in the early 19th century. It was introduced into English by Sir John Sinclair. Statistics found its way into other areas like public health, economics, and social sciences during the 20th century.

The mathematical methods of statistics evolved from probability theory in 1654 as indicated in the correspondence of Pierre de Fermat and Blaise Pascal. In the early 1700s, Jakob Bernoulli (Ars ...

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