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Multiple Intelligences: Howard Gardner

As part of a large collaborative project begun at Harvard University in the late 1970s, Howard Gardner (1943– ) began his examinations of human potential. In 1983, he published his seminal book Frames of Mind, which was republished in new editions in 1993 and 2003. His theory of multiple intelligences asserts that human intelligence is best conceptualized as a constellation of relatively autonomous cognitive competencies. These discrete intelligences allow individuals “to solve problems, or to create products, that are valued within one or more cultural settings” (Gardner, 1983/1993, p. x). The original seven intelligences are (1) linguistic, (2) logical-mathematical, (3) spatial, (4) bodily-kinesthetic, (5) musical, (6) interpersonal, and (7) intrapersonal. Gardner refined his theory after its original publication, proposing naturalist and existential intelligences as potential ...

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