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The development of policing in the United States may be traced to England. Robert Peel, a member of Parliament, was concerned about population growth, industrialization, and crime in London. Peel introduced a bill in Parliament seeking to establish a police force in London. Peel succeeded in 1829 when Parliament enacted the Metropolitan Police Act. Peel established a full-time, paid police force, and the constables wore uniforms, patrolled beats, and focused on the prevention of crime. Peel’s policing model in London was watched in America.

Policing has evolved in the United States and the history of policing may be divided into three different eras based on the philosophical basis of policing that was dominant in each era. The first era was the political era that encompassed ...

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