A rubric is a measurement and instructional tool that communicates instructor expectations to learners and uses explicitly stated criteria to categorize levels of performance regarding various skill levels, behaviors, product quality, and/or process quality. Rubrics are useful when instructors assess work in which learners have constructed knowledge and the work may not be easily scored using an answer key. For example, rubrics can be used to evaluate a performance of a task, a process such as problem solving, a written paper on a topic, a portfolio, and so on. In addition, a rubric enables both the instructor and the learners to identify desirable aspects of the work and areas needing improvement. A rubric often is a one-to two-page document containing a table or grid outlining ...

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