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21st Century Education: A Reference Handbook offers 100 chapters written by leading experts in the field that highlight the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates facing educators today. This comprehensive and authoritative two-volume work provides undergraduate education majors with insight into the rich array of issues inherent in education—issues informing debates that involve all Americans.Key Features:· Provides undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source ideal for their classroom research needs, preparation for GREs, and research into directions to take in pursuing a graduate degree or career· Offers more detailed information than encyclopedia entries, but not as much jargon, detail, or density as journal articles or research handbook chapters· Explores educational policy and reform, teacher education and certification, educational administration, curriculum, and instruction· Offers a reader-friendly common format: Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, References and Further Readings 21st Century Education: A Reference Handbook is designed to prepare teachers, professors, and administrators for their future careers, informing the debates and preparing them to address the questions and meet the challenges of education today.

State Testing
State testing

State testing of student achievement is a lynchpin of today's standards-based reform, where statewide testing is expected to serve as both a lever and a measure of school improvement. Spurred by the accountability requirements of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) of 2001 (Pub. L. No, 107–110, 2002), state tests aligned with standards and designed to assess student proficiency relative to them, are administered annually to every child in at least Grades 3–8 in English language arts and mathematics and in science in at least one grade in elementary, middle, and high school. In addition, states must annually assess the English proficiency of students who are classified as English learners, that is, those who are not fully proficient in English.

Because the same state ...

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