21st Century Education: A Reference Handbook offers 100 chapters written by leading experts in the field that highlight the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates facing educators today. This comprehensive and authoritative two-volume work provides undergraduate education majors with insight into the rich array of issues inherent in education—issues informing debates that involve all Americans.Key Features:· Provides undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source ideal for their classroom research needs, preparation for GREs, and research into directions to take in pursuing a graduate degree or career· Offers more detailed information than encyclopedia entries, but not as much jargon, detail, or density as journal articles or research handbook chapters· Explores educational policy and reform, teacher education and certification, educational administration, curriculum, and instruction· Offers a reader-friendly common format: Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, References and Further Readings 21st Century Education: A Reference Handbook is designed to prepare teachers, professors, and administrators for their future careers, informing the debates and preparing them to address the questions and meet the challenges of education today.
Chapter 9: Development: 3–5
My third grade teacher told my mother there was a lot going on in my mind. How did she guess?
—John Philo Dixon, The Spatial Child
Understanding children's thinking, including their decision making in social situations, is a hard task for teachers. A keen understanding of developmental theory can help teachers interact with and meet the needs of their students more effectively. Unfortunately, developmental research is often discussed out of context. One challenge in applying findings from developmental psychology to classrooms is figuring out how to translate a construct in a way that changes or clarifies how teachers instruct and interact with students (Davis, 2004). The purpose of this chapter is to assist readers in identifying common themes in the cognitive and socioemotional characteristics ...