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21st Century Education: A Reference Handbook offers 100 chapters written by leading experts in the field that highlight the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates facing educators today. This comprehensive and authoritative two-volume work provides undergraduate education majors with insight into the rich array of issues inherent in education—issues informing debates that involve all Americans.Key Features:· Provides undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source ideal for their classroom research needs, preparation for GREs, and research into directions to take in pursuing a graduate degree or career· Offers more detailed information than encyclopedia entries, but not as much jargon, detail, or density as journal articles or research handbook chapters· Explores educational policy and reform, teacher education and certification, educational administration, curriculum, and instruction· Offers a reader-friendly common format: Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, References and Further Readings 21st Century Education: A Reference Handbook is designed to prepare teachers, professors, and administrators for their future careers, informing the debates and preparing them to address the questions and meet the challenges of education today.

Role of Professional Learning in Advancing Quality Teaching and Student Learning
Role of professional learning in advancing quality teaching and student learning

Inservice teacher education existed in the United States in the 1800s when teachers' preparation for teaching was graduation from elementary school (Neil, 1986). At this time, teachers were seen as “culturally deficient and untrained” (Richey, 1957, p. 36). As preser-vice teacher education developed more fully in the Normal schools (1850–1920), these schools were deemed uneven in quality, thus inservice education (following the preser-vice stage) was expanded to complement the irregular practices of preservice training (Neil, 1986). Subsequently, shifts from a deficit model of teacher education to a developmental one were observed, but the deficit approach was most prevalent and remains so.

In the 1970s, an ...

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