• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

21st Century Education: A Reference Handbook offers 100 chapters written by leading experts in the field that highlight the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates facing educators today. This comprehensive and authoritative two-volume work provides undergraduate education majors with insight into the rich array of issues inherent in education—issues informing debates that involve all Americans.Key Features:· Provides undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source ideal for their classroom research needs, preparation for GREs, and research into directions to take in pursuing a graduate degree or career· Offers more detailed information than encyclopedia entries, but not as much jargon, detail, or density as journal articles or research handbook chapters· Explores educational policy and reform, teacher education and certification, educational administration, curriculum, and instruction· Offers a reader-friendly common format: Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, References and Further Readings 21st Century Education: A Reference Handbook is designed to prepare teachers, professors, and administrators for their future careers, informing the debates and preparing them to address the questions and meet the challenges of education today.

Informal Curriculum
Informal curriculum

In this chapter, we discuss the informal school curriculum that permeates the formal academic curriculum taught in schools. This chapter could have appeared in the curriculum section in Volume 1 that includes academic learning topics like mathematics as unintended learning is pervasive in the transaction of the formal curriculum. We place it here because it addresses some societal factors (media, policy makers, and so forth) that also influence what students learn in schools. However, for the most part, our focus is on what students learn in schools other than subject matter content (Jackson, 1968). Many believe that these informal, largely unintended influences are at least as important as academic content (see two special issues of the Elementary School Journal [Good, 1999, 2000]; ...

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