• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

21st Century Education: A Reference Handbook offers 100 chapters written by leading experts in the field that highlight the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates facing educators today. This comprehensive and authoritative two-volume work provides undergraduate education majors with insight into the rich array of issues inherent in education—issues informing debates that involve all Americans.Key Features:· Provides undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source ideal for their classroom research needs, preparation for GREs, and research into directions to take in pursuing a graduate degree or career· Offers more detailed information than encyclopedia entries, but not as much jargon, detail, or density as journal articles or research handbook chapters· Explores educational policy and reform, teacher education and certification, educational administration, curriculum, and instruction· Offers a reader-friendly common format: Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, References and Further Readings 21st Century Education: A Reference Handbook is designed to prepare teachers, professors, and administrators for their future careers, informing the debates and preparing them to address the questions and meet the challenges of education today.

Students as Social Beings
Students as social beings

Increasingly, students' social needs and interpersonal relationships are a focus of educational research and scholarship (e.g., Goodenow, 1992). School reform initiatives (e.g., No Child Left Behind Act of 2001) also recognize social aspects of being a student, although this recognition is typically in the form of group membership (e.g., ethnicity, social class). In the first instance, one goal of recognizing students as social beings may be to celebrate the social nature of students for its own sake; another might be to recognize student social relationships as a potential vehicle for the improvement of student achievement (e.g., small group learning in mathematics). In the case of school reform initiatives, however, one goal of representing students' group membership is to ...

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