• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

21st Century Education: A Reference Handbook offers 100 chapters written by leading experts in the field that highlight the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates facing educators today. This comprehensive and authoritative two-volume work provides undergraduate education majors with insight into the rich array of issues inherent in education—issues informing debates that involve all Americans.Key Features:· Provides undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source ideal for their classroom research needs, preparation for GREs, and research into directions to take in pursuing a graduate degree or career· Offers more detailed information than encyclopedia entries, but not as much jargon, detail, or density as journal articles or research handbook chapters· Explores educational policy and reform, teacher education and certification, educational administration, curriculum, and instruction· Offers a reader-friendly common format: Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, References and Further Readings 21st Century Education: A Reference Handbook is designed to prepare teachers, professors, and administrators for their future careers, informing the debates and preparing them to address the questions and meet the challenges of education today.


The role of the superintendent is dynamic—shaped and reshaped by social, cultural, political, and economic forces.1 It has evolved since its advent in the early 19th century from clerks for powerful boards to professional educational leaders like Horace Mann in the late 19th century, to corporate CEOs in the era of scientific management of schools in the first half of the 20th century.

Profound social, political, and economic changes occurred in the last decades of the 20th century, brought about by events such as the Supreme Court decision outlawing segregation in schools, the Vietnam War and Watergate, globalization, and the perception that poor schools hurt America's global competitiveness. These changes have resulted in a number of educational reforms: the standards and accountability movement and the ...

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