• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

21st Century Education: A Reference Handbook offers 100 chapters written by leading experts in the field that highlight the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates facing educators today. This comprehensive and authoritative two-volume work provides undergraduate education majors with insight into the rich array of issues inherent in education—issues informing debates that involve all Americans.Key Features:· Provides undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source ideal for their classroom research needs, preparation for GREs, and research into directions to take in pursuing a graduate degree or career· Offers more detailed information than encyclopedia entries, but not as much jargon, detail, or density as journal articles or research handbook chapters· Explores educational policy and reform, teacher education and certification, educational administration, curriculum, and instruction· Offers a reader-friendly common format: Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, References and Further Readings 21st Century Education: A Reference Handbook is designed to prepare teachers, professors, and administrators for their future careers, informing the debates and preparing them to address the questions and meet the challenges of education today.


Theories about how writers compose texts frame current research and pedagogy. Informed by LeFevre's (1987) paradigms for writing, Applebee's (2000) models of writing development, and Ward's (1994) analysis of various dialogic pedagogies, this chapter uses four frames to characterize research and practice in writing: emergent, cognitive, social constructivist, and critical.


The emergent frame has its roots in a diverse set of sources: (a) phenomenological philosophy, (b) Bruner's (1962) studies of cognition and creativity, (c) Chomsky's 91965) view of language acquisition, and (d) the Paris Review interviews (Plimpton, 1963). Phenomenology is based on the idea that reality is organized and experienced by the individual through language. Bruner's early work focused on the ways in which children's learning developed through manipulation, representation, and symbolism of the external ...

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