• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

21st Century Education: A Reference Handbook offers 100 chapters written by leading experts in the field that highlight the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates facing educators today. This comprehensive and authoritative two-volume work provides undergraduate education majors with insight into the rich array of issues inherent in education—issues informing debates that involve all Americans.Key Features:· Provides undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source ideal for their classroom research needs, preparation for GREs, and research into directions to take in pursuing a graduate degree or career· Offers more detailed information than encyclopedia entries, but not as much jargon, detail, or density as journal articles or research handbook chapters· Explores educational policy and reform, teacher education and certification, educational administration, curriculum, and instruction· Offers a reader-friendly common format: Theory, Methods, Applications, Comparison, Future Directions, Summary, References and Further Readings 21st Century Education: A Reference Handbook is designed to prepare teachers, professors, and administrators for their future careers, informing the debates and preparing them to address the questions and meet the challenges of education today.

Conceptual Learning
Conceptual learning

Educators generally want students to understand the concepts and principles of the domains they study, rather than only acquiring routine, low-level knowledge and procedural skill. Although much research has focused on individuals learning rules or definitions for classifying stimuli (classically, e.g., Bruner, Goodnow, & Austin, 1956, and Shepard, Hovland, & Jenkins, 1961; for a more recent review, see Murphy, 2002), we consider conceptual learning and understanding more generally, taking a view developed initially by Wittgenstein (1953/2001), as participation in the activities of communities of practice.

In general terms, learning by an individual in a community involves progress from peripheral to full participation (Lave & Wenger, 1991). An important part of full participation is knowing the concepts a group uses in coordinating activities, deciding ...

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