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Test translation refers to the literal translation of an assessment instrument from its original language to a different language, with the goal of preserving the original meaning of the items or questions in the assessment. The main reasons for translating existing tests from their original language to a second language—instead of developing new tests altogether in the second language—are economic considerations and for purposes of cross-national studies. It is generally cheaper and faster to translate an existing test than to develop a completely new assessment tool in the second language. Moreover, some nations may not have the resources or expertise to develop and validate a completely new assessment tool. Cross-national studies, on the other hand, require comparing scores of test takers from different nations ...

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