Those who are racially marginalized often experience various forms of racial microaggressions. Racial microaggressions are one form of systemic everyday racism used to keep those at the racial margins in their place. Racial microaggressions are (a) subtle verbal and nonverbal assaults directed toward people of color, often carried out automatically or unconsciously; (b) layered assaults, based on a person of color's race, gender, class, sexuality, language, immigration status, phenotype, accent, or surname; and (c) cumulative assaults that take a psychological and physiological toll on people of color. The concept of racial microaggressions allows educational researchers to understand how racism is embedded within educational policies, practices, and pedagogies that in turn mediate educational access, opportunity, and equity for students of color. Microaggressions explain the subtle ...

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