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Disaster and emergency management as a human activity has a long history, but as a modern profession and academic discipline, its history goes back more or less to the post-World War II period when some countries started developing their civil defense and emergency management acts and established some forms of civil defense (Europe) and emergency management (North America) organizations. As the profession and discipline grew and large disasters occurred, the need for standards became more evident, both nationally and internationally. It was understood by all parties involved in disaster and emergency management field that effective management of hazards, risks, emergencies, and disasters required standard concepts, frameworks, processes, and procedures. The past 15 years have seen the development and publication of a range of national ...

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