Cultures differ in the degree to which physical contact is permissible and for whom (see Personal Space). In low-contact cultures, touch occurs in limited circumstances. Low-contact cultures include the British, other northern European cultures, and those of North America and Japan. Too much contact in these cultures is viewed as intruding on a person's privacy. When low-contact cultures associate with high-contact cultures, the person from a low-contact culture may be viewed as unapproachable, distant, and hostile, whereas the person from a high-contact culture may be viewed as pushy and possibly intrusive. Very little touching can be expected from low-contact cultures such as that of Japan. Low-contact cultures differ from high-contact cultures in the amount of personal space that people require to feel comfortable (Gudykunst, 1998). ...

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