Dying is a social as well as physiological phenomenon. Each society characterizes and, consequently, treats death and dying in its own individual ways—ways that differ markedly. These particular patterns of death and dying engender modal cultural responses, and such institutionalized behavior has familiar, economical, educational, religious, and political implications. The Handbook of Death and Dying takes stock of the vast literature in the field.

Pre-Personality Pregnancy Losses: Miscarriages, Stillbirths, and Abortions
Pre-personality pregnancy losses: Miscarriages, stillbirths, and abortions

Researchers examining the psychological effects of miscarriages, stillbirths, and abortions on parents often consider the impacts of miscarriages and stillbirths in the same studies, and many include neonatal deaths as well. Induced abortions are almost always treated independently in research, in recognition of the basic differences between abortion and the other two types of pregnancy loss. The research literature generally assumes some degree of distress or grief following miscarriages and stillbirths because of the involuntary ...

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