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  • In: Encyclopedia of Counseling
  • Edited by: Frederick T. L. Leong
  • Subject:General Counseling & Psychotherapy, Counseling Psychology

Phrenology, an outmoded scientific discipline, predicted individual traits and characteristics in humans by analyzing the shape of the skull. Franz Joseph Gall, a Viennese physician practicing in the late 18th century, held that the brain shaped the skull, and the resulting ...

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