Corrections looks at the correctional system and offers arguments for and against the practice of the laws and policies that comprise corrections, from parole and probation to imprisonment, to the application of the death penalty. The 20 included chapters, written by eminent scholars and experts in the fields of criminology, police science, law, sociology, psychology, and other disciplines, take on such contested topics as what the goals of the correctional system should be (deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, or something else?) and how they should be achieved; who should make these decisions; and how to balance the goals of the correctional system with the civil rights of the inmates. Prison conditions and the treatment of prisoners, as well as the changing definition of cruel and unusual punishment, are also examined.The SeriesEach volume consists of approximately 20 chapters offering succinct pro/con examinations, and Recommended Readings conclude each chapter, highlighting different approaches to or perspectives on the issue at hand. As a set, these volumes provide perfect reference support for students writing position papers in undergraduate courses spanning the Criminal Justice curriculum. Each title is approximately 350 pages in length.
Clemency, also known as the pardon power, is the capability of an executive officer to forgive violations of criminal laws. Official forgiveness or pardoning is an ancient concept that has existed as long as formal systems of punishment have been used in societies. In the United States, clemency is a check-and-balance power that the chief executive may use to trump decisions made by the judiciary. Early presidential use and Supreme Court precedents hold that clemency may be used either as an “act of grace” or “for the public welfare,” although recent presidents have at times arguably abused clemency to further their personal legal or financial interests in a few high-profile cases.
Still, barring a famous recipient or a scandal, most clemency actions are barely noticed ...