Corrections looks at the correctional system and offers arguments for and against the practice of the laws and policies that comprise corrections, from parole and probation to imprisonment, to the application of the death penalty. The 20 included chapters, written by eminent scholars and experts in the fields of criminology, police science, law, sociology, psychology, and other disciplines, take on such contested topics as what the goals of the correctional system should be (deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, or something else?) and how they should be achieved; who should make these decisions; and how to balance the goals of the correctional system with the civil rights of the inmates. Prison conditions and the treatment of prisoners, as well as the changing definition of cruel and unusual punishment, are also examined.The SeriesEach volume consists of approximately 20 chapters offering succinct pro/con examinations, and Recommended Readings conclude each chapter, highlighting different approaches to or perspectives on the issue at hand. As a set, these volumes provide perfect reference support for students writing position papers in undergraduate courses spanning the Criminal Justice curriculum. Each title is approximately 350 pages in length.

Chapter 18: Religious Rights

Religious Rights

Religious rights

Key issues that pertain to the constitutional rights of incarcerated individuals have emerged over the last few decades. Recent attention to prisoners' constitutional rights has incited interesting debates, with religious rights at the forefront of these discussions.

The First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution stipulates legal protection of religion and religious exercise to all U.S. citizens. Accordingly, the First Amendment prohibits Congress from adopting laws that will inhibit freedom of religious exercises and practices. However, until the mid-20th century, there was very little constitutional protection of religious rights for the incarcerated. Traditionally, only limited religious rights were extended, and only the mainstream Christian doctrines, Catholics and Protestants, were accommodated. Now, religious rights within the penal system parallel those typically practiced in the outside ...

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