Corrections looks at the correctional system and offers arguments for and against the practice of the laws and policies that comprise corrections, from parole and probation to imprisonment, to the application of the death penalty. The 20 included chapters, written by eminent scholars and experts in the fields of criminology, police science, law, sociology, psychology, and other disciplines, take on such contested topics as what the goals of the correctional system should be (deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, or something else?) and how they should be achieved; who should make these decisions; and how to balance the goals of the correctional system with the civil rights of the inmates. Prison conditions and the treatment of prisoners, as well as the changing definition of cruel and unusual punishment, are also examined.The SeriesEach volume consists of approximately 20 chapters offering succinct pro/con examinations, and Recommended Readings conclude each chapter, highlighting different approaches to or perspectives on the issue at hand. As a set, these volumes provide perfect reference support for students writing position papers in undergraduate courses spanning the Criminal Justice curriculum. Each title is approximately 350 pages in length.
Although the original purpose of bail was to ensure the appearance of accused individuals in court, the Bail Reform Act of 1984 resulted in an expansion of the use of bail, explicitly allowing the use of preventive detention in cases involving defendants who were presumed dangerous by the court. Preventive detention is the temporary incarceration of an individual who has not been convicted of a crime. Provisions of the Bail Reform Act state that a defendant should not be released in the community if the release would not ensure his return to court or if his release would place members of the community in danger. This position was clarified in United States v. Salerno (1987), when the U.S. Supreme Court held that, ...