Corrections looks at the correctional system and offers arguments for and against the practice of the laws and policies that comprise corrections, from parole and probation to imprisonment, to the application of the death penalty. The 20 included chapters, written by eminent scholars and experts in the fields of criminology, police science, law, sociology, psychology, and other disciplines, take on such contested topics as what the goals of the correctional system should be (deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, or something else?) and how they should be achieved; who should make these decisions; and how to balance the goals of the correctional system with the civil rights of the inmates. Prison conditions and the treatment of prisoners, as well as the changing definition of cruel and unusual punishment, are also examined.The SeriesEach volume consists of approximately 20 chapters offering succinct pro/con examinations, and Recommended Readings conclude each chapter, highlighting different approaches to or perspectives on the issue at hand. As a set, these volumes provide perfect reference support for students writing position papers in undergraduate courses spanning the Criminal Justice curriculum. Each title is approximately 350 pages in length.
Chapter 12: Mentally Ill and Mentally Challenged Inmates
Mentally Ill and Mentally Challenged Inmates
Challenges regarding how to respond to the increased number of criminal offenders and inmates with mental illnesses (and also those suffering from mental retardation/developmental disability) have confronted criminal justice and corrections officials since the widespread deinstitutionalization of mentally ill individuals in the 1960s. Attributed both to the public outcry against the dismal and inhumane conditions of state mental hospitals and the advancement of medications to respond to various mental illnesses, the 1960s witnessed a mass exodus of the mentally ill from these mental health facilities into U.S. communities. Unfortunately, without the structure and professional/medical oversight of the mental institution and its staff, many of these mentally ill individuals were confronted with, among other serious ...