PREJUDICE IS the attitudinal element in enforcing racial and ethnic stratification, while discrimination is the active, or behavioral, element. Discrimination involves behavior aimed at denying members of particular ethnic groups equal access to societal rewards. It may be of an individual or institutional nature and de jure (in law) or de facto (in fact).

Actions taken by individuals or groups of limited size to injure or deny members of minority ethnic groups are perhaps the most easily understood form of discrimination. The employment manager who refuses to hire Asians, the judge who metes out unusually harsh sentences to African Americans, and the homeowners' group that agrees not to sell in the neighborhood to Jews are examples of discriminators at this level.

In these cases, actions are taken ...

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