Civil society refers to social space, the plural entirety of public associations, consolidations, and gatherings based on the voluntary collaboration of citizens. Historically, the development of the concept of a civil society was linked to the development of the bourgeoisie and their connection to commonwealth and state. Whereas the meaning of the term civil society has changed in the modern era since the seventeenth century, there is still an ongoing discussion about the significance of economic action (production and consumption) within civil society.

Historical Development

Considerations about civil society can be found in political and societal theories since Aristotle. He stated that a citizen is a social being and citizens should organize and be in charge of themselves. The politiké koinonia (civil society) is a community of ...

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