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A concept used in European constitutional law to describe the system in which executive members of national governments meet in an intergovernmental federal body to negotiate and create federal law. While there are many variations of executive federalism, Katy LeRoy and Cheryl Saunders, in Dialogues on Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Governance in Federal Countries (2006), assert that “the common denominator is a high level of policy making by governments acting collectively, relying on executive dominance of their respective legislatures to ensure that their decisions are given effect” (p. 42). According to Philipp Dann, in Principles of European Constitutional Law (2006), three basic components of executive federalism exist. The first is what Dann calls “a vertical structure of interwoven competencies,” meaning that the federal level creates ...