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An intentional act of misleading or providing information that is not true or that is partially true. Deception can also involve concealment or withholding of information. In psychological experi mentation, deception refers to a research procedure that involves misleading participants about the real purpose of the study. This procedure is legal in psychological research and in some cases is necessary to avoid jeopardizing the results of the study. For example, deception is frequently used in experiments that involve a placebo group where participants are not told whether they are in the placebo or experimental groups. When deception is used, participants need to be explained the real purposes of the experiment afterward; this procedure is referred to as “debriefing.” The American Psychological Association also recommends that ...