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A learned response evoked by a stimulus that has been classically conditioned. Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936), a Russian physiologist, first coined this term after incidentally discovering classical conditioning while studying the digestive system. He leashed his dogs to a harness and placed food in their mouths to measure the saliva flow. He soon realized that his dogs started salivating before the food was even placed in their mouths. They salivated merely by seeing the assistant in charge of bringing the food. He called that response a CR because it is learned and not instinctual or innate like the response of salivation to the food (which he called an unconditioned response). For more information, see Pavlov (1927/1960).

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