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Civil rights are the liberties citizens are entitled to within a particular jurisdiction. Civil rights can be written, implied, or derived from common law. When citizens deem certain rights to be inadequate or inequitably applied, civil rights movements have materialized as a way to redress such social wrongs. The United States has passed several civil rights acts. The Civil Rights Act of 1866, initially vetoed by President Johnson and subsequently affirmed by Congress, entitled all citizens, with the exception of Native Americans, to own property, enter into contractual agreements, and sue and testify in a court of law. The Civil Rights Act of 1871, also referred to as the Ku Klux Clan (KKK) Act, was passed to provide African Americans legal redress against abuses inflicted ...

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