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Each of the major methodological paradigms (i.e., qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods research) has its set of criteria or standards for establishing the validity of the findings. Here, we list the major types used in quanti tative research. We rely on the framework provided by the prominent quantitative research methodologists Thomas Cook and the late Donald Campbell. According to their framework, as outlined by Shadish, Cook, and Campbell (2002), quantitative research validity is divided into four major types: statistical conclusion validity, construct validity, internal validity, and external validity. Statistical conclusion validity refers to the degree to which the research study allows one to infer accurately that the independent and dependent variables are related and to infer accurately the size and direction of the relationship. Construct ...

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