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The degree to which one measures what one sets out to measure in a given sample or, alternatively, the accuracy of the interpretations and decisions that are made based on test or measurement instrument scores. Several kinds of validity-related evidence can be used to support validity claims, including criterion-, construct-, and content-related evidence.

Criterion-related validity examines the degree to which a measure predicts a known construct or criterion of interest. For example, a standardized achievement test given to schoolchildren would have criterion-related validity if it adequately predicted academic performance, such as grades in school. Criterion validity includes two subtypes, predictive and concurrent validity. Predictive validity refers to the degree to which scores on one measure predict scores on a future criterion measure. When examining predictive validity, ...

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