A sanction imposed on a person or persons as a result of their wrongdoing. In criminal law, punishment is imposed following conviction for a criminal offense. The range of punishments that can be imposed for any given offense is specified in the penal code. Punishment can range from financial penalties (e.g., fines and restitution), to restrictions on freedom (through surveillance, house arrest, etc.), to the deprivation of liberty (through incarceration or imprisonment), to the forfeiture of life (through a death sentence). Deterrence, retribution, incapacitation, and rehabili tation are the four widely accepted purposes of punishment.