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The broad spectrum of human interaction that occurs at, and between, every level or unit within complex organi zations. Simply put, organizational communication entails listening, speaking, questioning, and sharing feedback. The forms in which these acts occur serve to define the nature and effectiveness of a particular organization's communication system. The architecture of organizational communication consists of three general axes: downward, upward, and lateral (or horizontal) communication. Downward communication within an organization may refer to employer-to-employee, supervisor-to-supervisee, or even mentor-to mentee communication and management of individuals' behaviors within the organization. Those in charge may communicate to subordinates through meetings, memos, work orders, instructional manuals, bulletins, performance reviews, and so on. Upward communi cation in these contexts may entail product reports— both written and oral, various ...