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The detection of relations between objects on a property and the representation of these relations through symbols. The symbols used are usually numerical. The types of relations (equality, order, etc.) that can be detected correspond to different levels of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio, absolute). The set of symbols or numbers used to represent the relations between objects is called a measurement scale. In the social sciences, unlike in physics, it is seldom evident how properties, such as anxiety, can be measured. These properties are measured indirectly, through tests, questionnaires, physiological registration (e.g., eye movements), and observations of behavior or the results thereof (e.g., the number of cigarette butts on the pavement). How these observed measurements relate to the unobserved property (anxiety) can be described, ...

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