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The humanistic approach in psychology, often associated with Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, emphasizes subjective experience, conscious free-will, and human aspiration. In direct opposition to the more deterministic psychoanalytic and behaviorist theories that preceded it, humanistic theory presented an optimistic view of human nature, in which humans are active, creative, and concerned with growth. Humanistic theory holds that humans think consciously and rationally, can exert control over their biological urges, and can change their attitudes and behavior. Problems are believed to result from incompatibility between one's actions and one's beliefs about oneself. While the humanistic theory is often criticized as the least testable theory of personality, most psychologists agree that subjective experience guides personality development more strongly than objective reality. Humanistic psychology's emphasis on healthy ...