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A horseshoe-shaped complex of neurons located in the medial temporal lobe, posterior and adjacent to the amygdala. Humans and other mammals have two hippocampi, which join together via the fornix at the hippocampal commissure. The hippocampus is part of the limbic system and is involved in the consolidation of new memories, emotional processing, spatial orientation, and spatial navigation. It is not exactly clear what the role of the hippocampus is once memories have been consolidated and stored in the long-term memory; hippocampal damage can result in anterograde amnesia (loss of ability to form new memories) while sparing older memories. However, degeneration of the hippocampus results in eventual eroding of long-term memory and disorientation, the hallmark features of Alzheimer's dementia. Damage to the hippocampus does not ...