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An inferential, statistical procedure to investigate differences in one dependent variable between two or more groups, often involving more than one independent variable. An analysis of variance evaluates the differences among means relative to the dispersion in the sampling distributions. Two estimates of variance are compared. One estimate comes from the differences among scores within each group and is considered error variance. The second estimate is derived from differences in group means and is therefore considered an expression of group differences or treatment effect (effect of experimental condition) plus error. If these do not differ significantly, it is concluded that all the group means (experimental and control) come from the same sampling distribution of means and variations are only due to random error. If the ...

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